Small GTPase which cycles between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. Mainly associated with cytoskeleton organization, in active state binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses such as cytoskeletal dynamics, cell migration and cell cycle (PubMed:23871831). Regulates a signal transduction pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers (PubMed:31570889, PubMed:8910519, PubMed:9121475). Involved in a microtubule-dependent signal that is required for the myosin contractile ring formation during cell cycle cytokinesis (PubMed:12900402, PubMed:16236794). Plays an essential role in cleavage furrow formation. Required for the apical junction formation of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion (PubMed:20974804, PubMed:23940119). Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly (PubMed:19934221). The MEMO1-RHOA-DIAPH1 signaling pathway plays an important role in ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex. It controls the localization of APC and CLASP2 to the cell membrane, via the regulation of GSK3B activity. In turn, membrane-bound APC allows the localization of the MACF1 to the cell membrane, which is required for microtubule capture and stabilization (PubMed:20937854). Regulates KCNA2 potassium channel activity by reducing its location at the cell surface in response to CHRM1 activation; promotes KCNA2 endocytosis (PubMed:19403695, PubMed:9635436). Acts as an allosteric activator of guanine nucleotide exchange factor ECT2 by binding in its activated GTP-bound form to the PH domain of ECT2 which stimulates the release of PH inhibition and promotes the binding of substrate RHOA to the ECT2 catalytic center (PubMed:31888991). May be an activator of PLCE1 (PubMed:16103226). In neurons, involved in the inhibition of the initial spine growth. Upon activation by CaMKII, modulates dendritic spine structural plasticity by relaying CaMKII transient activation to synapse-specific, long-term signaling (By similarity). Acts as a regulator of platelet alpha-granule release during activation and aggregation of platelets (By similarity). {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P61589, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q9QUI0, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12900402, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16103226, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16236794, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19403695, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19934221, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20937854, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20974804, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23871831, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23940119, ECO:0000269|PubMed:31570889, ECO:0000269|PubMed:31888991, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8910519, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9121475, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9635436}.; (Microbial infection) Serves as a target for the yopT cysteine peptidase from Yersinia pestis, vector of the plague. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12062101, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12538863}.

Matrix Type

  • Plasma
  • Tissue/Cells

Gene Symbol

  • RHOA

UniProt ID

  • P61586

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